"the course of Western Civilization"

Why the big government of the Democratic Party is asking for the moon ?


This is the fourth subsection of section 3,” Greedy and degenerate of human nature” of Chapter 1, “Religion and life,” the first part of “The History of Western Civilization”. I renamed it,  “the big government of the Democratic Party cannot last”. This chapter specifically discusses the fatal shortcomings of Confucianism. Due to the greed and degeneration of human nature, everyone wants to get everything without labor and take a free ride. As a result, the bureaucratic structure expands maliciously, so it has to levy taxes, forcing it to expand more and form a vicious circle. Finally, the economy can’t bear it, and the whole society collapses. In fact, this is also the current trend of American society. The government agencies are growing larger and larger, the expenditure is increasing, the debt is becoming more and more serious, and the society is getting worse and worse. In the end, it will inevitably lead to the complete collapse of the federal government

Why  the big government of the Democratic Party  is asking for the moon ?

Many scholars have pointed out that in China’s autocratic monarchy society, the bureaucratic class has a counter effect on the emperors, and they checked and balanced the emperors. This check and balance actually exist, but its effect is very limited. The Confucian bureaucratic class often advised the emperor to act according to the Confucian standard of the benevolent king, but if the emperor did not listen to this advice, the bureaucratic class had no way. Because the real Confucianists never dare to offend the emperor’s authority, let alone strike a rebellion. They knew that the world would be in chaos without the emperor, so what they could do when the emperor didn’t listen to advice was to end his own life, die a hero’s death and complete their mission.

In “Romance of Three Kingdoms”, when Liu Bei entered Sichuan, Liu Zhang adopted Zhang Song’s suggestion and wanted to accept Liu Bei, so, “the next day, Liu Zhang mounted his horse to ride out to Elm Tree Bridge. Then a messenger reported to him: “Wang Lei has suspended himself, head downwards, at the city gate. He holds a written remonstrance in one hand and in the other a knife. And he says that if you heed him not, he will cut the rope and die at your feet.”

Liu Zhang went to the gate, took the writing, and read:

“Good medicine is bitter in the mouth but good for the disease; faithful words offend the ear but are good for the conduct. Of old King Huai of Chu listened not to Qu Yuan, but attended the meeting at Wu Pass and was captured by the state of Qin. Sir, you are thoughtlessly leaving your place to go to welcome Liu Bei, but I fear there is a way out and none in. Could you but behead Zhang Song in the marketplace and have nothing to do with this league with Liu Bei? It would be for the happiness of old and young and assure the safety of yourself.”

Anger rose in Liu Zhang’s breast as he read.

“Why do you insult me when I go to meet a kind man I feel as if I were about to enjoy the delight of seeing brother?”

At this time, Wang Lei gave a great cry, severed the rope, and fell to the ground battered and dead.”This is the real Confucianism. He would rather kill himself than hurt the emperor.①

Confucianism is the most reasonable theory of the secular society, and the monarchy is the most reasonable system of the secular society, but any reasonable system can not restrain the greed and degeneration of human nature. Since the emperor who reigns in the world and holds the power of life and death is so majestic and imperious, it is naturally everyone’s ultimate dream, so it is common for brothers and sisters to fight at each other’s throats, dog-eat-dog in court.

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In the Qin Dynasty, after the death of the first emperor of Qin, Hu Hai and Zhao Gao artificially issued a decree to give death to Prince Fusu and general Meng Tian. Hu Hai seized the throne as the second emperor of Qin. In the Tang Dynasty, Li Shimin, king of Qin, the son of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, launched a coup in Xuanwu Gate, killed his brother Prince Li Jiancheng and won the right to inherit the throne of the Tang Dynasty. Wu Zetian, and queen of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, successively dethrone her two sons (Zhongzong and Ruizong) after the death of Emperor Gaozong. She ascended the throne, named the Great Zhou Dynasty, made Luoyang the capital, and became empress, the first female emperor in Chinese history. After Wu Zetian was forced to abdicate, Zhongzong Li Xian restored and re-established the political power of the Tang Dynasty. However, Zhongzong’s Queen Wei and daughter Princess Anle intended to emulate Wu Zetian as Empress, so they murdered Zhongzong and wanted to harm Vassal King, Li Dan. Li Longji, the son of Li Dan, who was the Vassal King of Linzi, launched a coup with the assistance of her aunt Princess Taiping, killed queen Wei, Princess Anle, and the remnants of WuZetian, supported Li Dan (Ruizong) to restore. Later, the younger sister of Ruizong, Princess Taiping, had a power struggle with Li Longji. Li Longji also staged ed a coup at Xuanwu Gate. After the defeat of Princess Taiping, Ruizong gave way to Crown Prince Li Longji. Li Longji was Tang Xuanzong, also known as Tang Ming Huang. In the Later Zhou Dynasty of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Zhao Kuangyin launched the Chen Qiao mutiny, clocked yellow robes, seized the power of the Later Zhou Dynasty, and established the Northern Song Dynasty as the emperor Taizu of the Song Dynasty. However, later, Zhao Kuangyin himself left behind a legend of “candle shadow and axe sound” to future generations and died strangely. His younger brother Zhao Guangyi inherited the throne of the Northern Song Dynasty and was Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, the emperor’s first ancestor, died, and Zhu Yunwen, the eldest grandson of the emperor, ascended the throne. Zhu Di, the king Yan, initiated the battle called Jingnan in the name of “save the country, clean the villain around the emperor of the Ming Dynasty”, killed his nephew Zhu Yunwen, the Ming Huizong, and won the throne as the emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty. Not only the internal struggle for the throne but also the external generals coveted the throne. As long as they had the opportunity, they led troops to the capital to compete for the throne, such as Dong Zhuo’s entry to Beijing in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the “anShi” rebellion, the rebellion of vassal towns in the late Tang Dynasty, including Zhao Kuangyin’s Chenqiao mutiny, which was actually a rebellion by generals. There are too many such cases in Chinese history. Since it is beyond the subject of this book, I will not narrate much here. It can be said that Chinese history is a history of competing for the emperor’s throne, both inside and outside the court.②

The main problem of Confucianism is not the unstoppable struggle for the throne but the endless expansion of the bureaucracy, that is, the unlimited growth of the members of the bureaucracy. It is also caused by the greed and degeneration of human nature. In “the super stable structure of china feudal society”, Mr. Jin Guantao explained this phenomenon as fish begins to stink at the head. Due to the emperor’s stupidity and incompetence, the bureaucracy was rotten. The unorganized forces grew irreversibly and finally led to an irreparable outcome. On this point, I disagree with Mr. Jin Guantao. I have repeatedly stressed that Confucianism is the best secular theory, most in line with the common sense of human relations and human nature. However, I have been demonstrating that human nature is greedy and degenerate, likes leisure, and hates work, so the best secular theory, which is in line with human nature and the common sense of human relations, is not necessarily the best and most reasonable theory.

The pyramid-like hierarchy of Confucianism itself caters to humans’ pursuit of human vanity, encourages the greed and degeneration of human nature, and emboldens people to achieve without effort and gain without pain. It uses interests and reputation as bait and encapsulates all the elites in the world to serve the emperor. Although Confucianism puts the emperor on a high-sounding veil, saying that their hierarchy can match his position with morality, which and the rule of kings are the best system. But first, there is no clear standard for ‘morality’. Second, how can he consciously match his position with morality under the greed and corruption of human nature? It is not surprising that most of the high-ranking people in Chinese history are flattering villains.Moreover, this immoral essence will inevitably lead to a vicious circle. Each level of the pyramid-like bureaucracy has greater interests and reputation than the low level and more gains without pain. Each level can determine the interests, reputation, and even life and death of the low level. It is the so-called Official’s rank superior to crush the inferior. Each step of upgrading can bring great interest and reputation; this encourages people to compete for high rank by any means, whether legitimate or illegitimate, just or unjust. It is the so-called no, “no risk no gain,” “fortune favors the daring,” and “the world is prosperous, all for interests; the world is bustling, all for benefits. “Even the ninth rank trivial officials and petty officials at the lowest level in the bureaucracy can get paid without work compared with the people at the bottom. It at least meets the minimum requirements of humans, whose nature is like leisure, hates work, and gains without work.

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Since the bureaucracy caters to the greed and degeneration of human nature, human vanity, and have so many vested interests and reputations. People would crowd in fighting for fame and profit, gain without work, and the extremely corrupt act of freeloading can also become a normal phenomenon. As a result, the bureaucracy has more and more members, and the bureaucracy has become more and more swollen. It must be maintained by increasing taxes, and the bureaucracy must also expand to levy more taxes. As a result of this vicious circle, the economy finally collapses because it can’t bear it. At the end of each dynasty, the exploitation of the bureaucratic class was extremely cruel because they had no choice. So many bureaucratic personnel were crying for food. Society could only survive in a good year. Still, in a disaster year, a large number of families went bankrupt, countless bottom people were displaced, dislodged, without a roof, on the streets, became homeless, refugees wandered around, and finally broke out the peasant uprising of dynasty change. Hence, another cycle began; this is the “Periodic Law” of the Rise and Fall of Dynasties in Chinese society. The endless expansion of bureaucracy is the fatal flaw of Confucianism and the inevitable result of greedy and degenerate human nature, which has no solution within the scope of Confucianism. There is only one way to prevent the expansion of bureaucracy, small government and big society. The government should diminish power as much as possible, leaving more wealth and resources to the society for competition rather than a monopoly by the government. However, The government and other bureaucrats have to adopt a pyramid-like hierarchical system. Although this system encourages inequality between people and represents the evil of human nature, it also has its advantages, such as centralized power, tight organization, high efficiency, and strong execution. Especially the administrative branches of the government, if you don’t adopt this structure, all parties will procrastinate and prevaricate, and it will be impossible to govern. However, the flaws of this pyramid-like hierarchy are very conspicuous even in the United States. Civil servants are self-contained, protect each other’s interests and shield each other. Although the government and other bureaucrats have to adopt this system, the smaller the power of the government, the less harm it will cause? Today’s American society is managed in this way. Only in this way can we develop the strengths of a “pyramid-like hierarchy,” avoid its weaknesses, and plays a role. The following is the data about the expansion of bureaucracy in Mr. Jin Guantao’s book “super stable structure of feudal society,” which is shocking. The expansion of bureaucracy is indeed the cancer of Confucian and autocratic societies, and there is no cure.

“Although the number of bureaucrats in the past dynasties is different, there is an obvious trend. At the end of any dynasty, the number of bureaucrats is several times, even several ten times larger than at the beginning of the dynasty. For example, in the 627 ad, the shrewd Taizong of the Tang Dynasty merged the Official position. Chang’an, the capital, the largest city of the Tang Empire, with a population of more than 1.1 million, only retained 643 to 730 officials, and the number of foreign officials was correspondingly small. Thirty years later, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong Xianqing, the number of officials expanded to 13465. By the years of Yuanhe (806-820), the number of civil and military officials and various petty officials had reached 36868. Based on the calculation of the country’s 1.44 million taxpayers at that time,  every seven households had to undertake two officials on average. The expansion of officials in the Dynasty Song was even more alarming. In the 40 years from ren zong,huang you to zhe zong , Yuan you, as for foreign officials concerned. The number of Military governors increased from three to nine, two stayed envoys, from one to eight, surveillance envoys, from one to 15, and defense envoys from four to 42. The number of other officials increased by an average of six times in more than 80 years from Jingde to Yuan you. During Hongwu Period in the early Ming Dynasty, there were 24000 civil and military officials, and more than 80000 in the Xianzong period a hundred years later. The expansion of institutions is also very fast. Take Ji Town as an example; It was initially an institution. When in Shenzong, the border was divided into towns, and one town was divided into three roads. Institutions were set up on each road. In this way, the institutions are 12 times the original amount, and the officials are 30 times the original amount.

The eunuch system was also expanding. There were less than 100 eunuch officials in the early years of Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty, but more than 10000 in the middle of it. When the Ming Dynasty was subjugated, there were 70000 eunuchs in the palace alone, plus 100000 in all parts of the country. Eunuchs had their own system. There are twelve prisons, four departments, and eight bureaus, a total of twenty Yamen. Minions serving eunuch organizations were as many as the hairs on an ox. When Shizong was in power, he cut more than 30000 royal eunuch guards for the first time and 148000 for the second time.

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In the bureaucracy, minor officials were generally more than ten times that state officials. According to the official quota, there were 7567 civil and military officials in the Eastern Han Dynasty, while there were 145419 minor officials. Minor officials were 19 times more than officials. In the Tang Dynasty, the total number of officials was 268 668, of which only 17 686 were officials, and the number of minor officials was about 20 times that of officials. If the number of officials at the beginning of the dynasty was about 10000 to 30000, and at the end of the dynasty, it expanded several times to about 50000 to 100000, then the number of minor officials would expand to more than one million, which is really amazing. “③

The law of dynasty change is not the theme of this book. These discussions mainly demonstrate that the hierarchy and monarchy of Confucianism are consistent with the experience of secular life, the most consistent with human nature, the most common sense of human relations, and the most reasonable secular theory. While freedom and equality are anti-secular life, anti-human nature, and anti-common sense of human relations, freedom and equality come from faith. They can exist only by relying on faith.

①Luo Guanzhong the 60th chapter of “the romance of the Three Kingdoms”, people’s Literature Publishing House

② Reference from network

③Jin Guantao “China’s super stable structure of feudal society”, Law Press, p 61-65

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