In the second chapter, through much combing of human moral philosophy, we know that in the secular society, humans can not maintain the moral standard under natural circumstances due to human selfishness, greed, and degeneration, and the final outcome must be moral collapse and social chaos. Therefore, there must be laws and regulations and minimum moral standards in the secular society, and there must be police, the military, and other violent institutions to maintain social stability and order through coercive means. However, in the spiritual field, there are other things. At this time, we must not use the means of secular society and the laws and regulations to suppress the evil of human nature or enforce them. In the spiritual field, we must recognize that human nature is good. Humans can become saints with noble morality through faith and God’s operation in human conscience, making humans do good voluntarily. If they do not recognize the goodness of human nature, do not recognize that God can work successfully in human conscience, and rely on coercive means in the spiritual field, it is the spiritual oppression of the Catholic Church in the middle ages. The affairs in the secular and spiritual fields are completely different and must not be confused. All these prove that the definition of the duality of human nature in the Bible is highly profound and entirely correct. At the same time, it is proper to divide human society into spiritual and material, religious and political, according to this duality. Compared with other types of societies, the duality can easily show its advantages. Looking at the world today, we can find that the most developed countries, the United States, Germany, Britain, and Northern Europe, are all Christian countries. Their society operates through the separation of religion and state based on the duality of human nature.
Let’s briefly discuss the impact of human nature’s duality on economic life. We know that an economy regulated by the hand of God is called a market economy. Due to the greed of capitalists’ human nature, the market economy is likely to cause an economic crisis of overproduction. The great depression in the United States was a crisis of overproduction. Before the great depression, the United States followed the principle of a complete market economy, and the government did not intervene in the economy at all. President Hoover supported this principle firmly; he still adopted the policy of non-intervention in the great depression, which intensified the economic crisis. In the face of the crisis, President Roosevelt, who took over as president, pursued Keynesian economic theory, broke the iron law that the government did not intervene in the market, and boldly reformed. He quickly extricated the United States from the crisis by employing government intervention in the economy, such as building roads and limiting production. In fact, it is that the government forced the secondary distribution of wealth to curb the greed of capitalists and put society on the right track. However, the continuous implementation of Roosevelt’s intervention policy went to another extreme. At that time, the Keynesian United States and Britain were more and more inclined toward socialism. However, it was not the greed of capitalists at this time; it was the greed of workers that drove society to the other extreme. We can see that many workers in state-owned enterprises in Britain and the United States also lied down on the job, which was inefficient, and was wasted seriously. It gave birth to Reagan economics, returning to liberalism, and the privatization reform of reducing state-owned enterprises by Mrs. Thatcher, the iron lady. Personally, I think government intervention is also part of the hand of God. Its regulation can bridle the human greed of capitalists, but government intervention can not go too far. If it goes too much, it will stimulate the human greed of ordinary people. For example, in today’s European society, many people can live a good life through high welfare, so who wants to work? Government intervention should be as little as possible and try to intervene in the economy through other competitive institutions in society to realize the secondary distribution of wealth. For example, we can make full use of the benign competition between different Christian charities. Social welfare and many other secondary distributions of wealth can be implemented by them rather than the government. That is, to minimize the power of the government and form a governance model of large society and small government, which is also the ideal society in the eyes of many people. In the secular society, human nature is evil, greedy, and degenerate at any time, and competition must exist at all times. Social welfare is distributed by charities of different sects, which is absolutely more reliable than the implementation by a single monopoly government. We will discuss that the government is also composed of greedy and degenerate individuals, which is also greedy and degenerate; if not restricted, it will devour the whole society.