What will be discussed below is the Williams event. Williams is considered to be the founder of religious freedom. It is he who put forward the concepts of conscience freedom and religious freedom， which finally enabled different Christian denominations to coexist and prosper harmoniously in the United States. However, I put forward a view contrary to this traditional opinion. I think Williams did not initiate the concept of religious freedom. Religious freedom has widely existed in England. During the period of Cromwell’s protectorate, religious freedom has been quite common. All sects coexist harmoniously and have freedom of faith on the basis of recognizing the absolute power of God in conscience. After all, different Protestant sects read the same Bible, based on Luther and Calvin’s theories. They all pursue brotherly love and have no basis for fierce conflict. The nature of the conflict between them is completely different from that between Catholicism and Protestantism. Luther initially put up the idea that Catholicism was Antichrist, so the contradiction between Protestantism and Catholicism is irreconcilable. Williams brought up the concept of complete separation of politics and religion, that is, the State shall not interfere in religious affairs, and the Church also not interfere in state affairs. In fact, this is the reason and beginning of the continuous division of Puritans. It can be said that Williams’ theory of separation of politics and religion led to the scattered situation of American churches. Thus, the secular government continues to encroach on the Church’s rights, which is a potential danger for the American society to enter the police state. The reason why I say these are very long. You can only listen to me slowly. First of all, before we understand the Williams incident and Williams’ theory of the complete separation of politics and religion, we must understand the real and original separation of politics and religion.
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The Bible clearly says, “God belongs to God, and Kaiser belongs to Kaiser.” Jesus said this in the context that after Israel betrayed God and their countries had been subjugated, God came to the world as the son Jesus and rebuilt his faith in a moral ruin. In the early stage of the development of Christianity, in order to survive in non-Christian countries, Christianity had to grin and bear anything. At that time, there was no alternative but to do it because Jesus never hoped to preach with a sword. It also expresses a good wish and has a very far-reaching meaning. But a good wish only is a good wish. The cruel reality followed also shows that it is only a good wish. Non-Christian countries never had the concept of separation of politics and religion. The several cruel persecutions of Christianity by the Roman Empire on behalf of pagans also expound on this. But its profound implication is that the separation of politics and religion has become the basic concept of Christian countries, which makes Christian countries form a unique society different from non-Christian countries. Contemporary politics divide countries in human history into three categories. One is pure secular countries, for example, in most countries in the eastern world, where the power of secular emperors completely suppresses religion, and religion completely serves the secular regime, becoming a tool to maintain the stability of secular Kingship. One is the integration of politics and religion in Islamic society. The religious influence here is more significant than the secular regime; the secular regime has wholly become a tool of the Church. Both are non-Christian countries. The third category is Christian countries, where religion and politics, Church and secular king are separated. They are often in conflict, but they can restrict and promote each other to develop society harmoniously and orderly. I personally agree with this categorization and think it reflects the essence of human society. In the middle ages, with the brilliant victory of Christianity in Europe, everyone in European Society was a member of the Church, and every country was also Christian. Christianity affected everything in people’s life. However, due to “God belongs to God, and Kaiser belongs to Kaiser.”, new contradictions appeared. There is a constant dispute over who dominates the religious and royal powers between the Pope representing the Church and the king standing for the secular regime. With the power struggle between the Pope and the king, the separation of politics and religion has also become a frequent topic of discussion in these Christian countries, which is impossible in other societies. For the separation of politics and religion, generations spent countless efforts and in-depth discussions. Finally, they formed the double sword theory, which divided human society into spiritual, material, religious, and secular societies. The Church held the spiritual sword, the king held the material sword, the Church managed the religious affairs, and the king handled the secular affairs. Their power comes from God, and they each hold one. The Church and the State are interdependent and codependent, are mutual restraint and mutual interaction. Professor Cong Riyun described the Christian society as two heads like snake monsters, biting and fighting each other, but they must compromise and coordinate with each other. Otherwise, the snake’s body will be unable to move. Although this metaphor is strange, it is very vivid. In this way, a unique phenomenon in Christian society is formed; that is, the Church restricts the Kingship, curbs the rampant Kingship, and avoids the suffering of the change of dynasties in a purely secular society. At the same time, the secular regime restrains religion and avoids the barbarism and ignorance of a society integrating politics and religion. It enables the society to develop smoothly, orderly, and healthily, avoids the defects of the pure secular monarchy autocratic society and the society of integration of politics and religion.
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