These leftist thinkers did not know that there was no so-called universal and abstract good. Schopenhauer criticized Kant’s moral concept from this point and created the philosophy of will. Kant thinks morality is good, far from a specific good but a universal and abstract good. This definition is, of course, impeccable rationally, but it is useless in practice. Because all the good in life has specific content, there is no universal and abstract good. Therefore, Kant’s moral philosophy is complacent in philosophy and useless in real life.
Similarly, the leftist thinkers put the nation as universal and abstract concepts, such as universal freedom, equality, human rights, etc. As a result, the so-called universal values are also extraordinarily void and groundless. Because in real life, these universal values have actual contents and profound soils. They all come from the ground of Christianity. They come from the brotherly love of Christianity, the equality of all people under God, and the religious freedom of all sects. For more than 5000 years in human history, apart from the Christian world, other human societies have never had such concepts of equality and religious freedom, all of which come from the Christian world. And even in Christian countries, these concepts appeared very late. As for religious freedom, we know that although the separation of church and state was widespread in the middle ages, the concept of religious freedom came into being only to ensure fair competition among all sects after the birth of Protestantism. The concept of equality was also formed after Protestantism’s “everyone is equal under God.” Jefferson put forward that all people are created equally in the declaration of independence. Then the concept of equality was widely accepted. The concept of human rights was even later until Hegel abstracted a universal and abstract concept of human rights. Before the emergence of these concepts, brotherly love lay widely in the Christian world, which was the only soil that could create these concepts. The universal values of equality, freedom and human rights were also the gradual evolution of brotherly love.
The love of brothers makes us impossible to be superior to our brothers and restricts brothers’ freedom. When it develops to a certain extent, the concepts of equality and freedom come into existence naturally. Of course, I am just briefly discussing it here. If you want to know more about how brotherly love evolved to equality and freedom, you can re-read Chapter 7 of this book, “Ruth and Calvin.” In the five thousand years of history since the existence of humans in ancient Egypt, the concept of equality and freedom has never appeared in other societies. The soil full of brotherly love is unique to the Christian world, and other human societies never have such similar soil, so it is impossible to bear these concepts. Equality, freedom, and other universal values are not generated and abstracted from empty, but the fruits of the soil of brotherly love, the fruits of which developed to a certain extent. Even today, it is a problem whether these universal values can exist universally and whether these concepts can survive in non-Christian society?
When I say these, many people may retort that there existed laws to protect life and property in ancient Greek and Rome, but the laws to protect life and property are far from clear universal values such as equality and freedom. The freedom of ancient Greece was limited to the citizens of the city-states, and the status difference between nobles and civilians was noticeable. Even Solon’s reforms were carried out on the basis of the recognition of property rights rather than denial. The freedom of ancient Rome was also confined to the citizens of the Republic. Similarly, the differences among the
elders, nobles, and civilians were very obvious.
Moreover, due to the existence of private law, the relationship between people in the Republic of ancient Rome was more complex and far away from the concepts of freedom and equality. We have also discussed that due to the greed and depravity of human nature, even these simple human rights concepts were lost in a short time. The Macedonian Empire annihilated ancient Greece, and the ancient Roman Empire also abolished the ancient Roman Republic. After the fall of ancient Greece and Rome, human beings had been struggling in the monarchy and hierarchical society for more than a thousand years, let alone the concepts of freedom, equality, and human rights. Not only that, their words did not appear.
Let’s briefly review the lengthy content of the second chapter of this book and make some preparations because we will explain from the most fundamental perspective and infer that a secular society can’t produce universal values such as freedom and equality. The main content of this chapter is that humans can not restrain the nature of greed and degeneration by their own power. Only through faith can humans obtain morality. It can be understood here that only through faith can humans get the concepts of equality, freedom, and human rights rather than through rationality. Therefore, secular society can not produce these concepts. More than 2000 years ago, Aristotle, Plato, and other rationalists believed that humans acted according to reason, but it was never exercised by humans practically. So people began to criticize rationalism from Pirang’s skepticism. In modern times, utilitarianism believed that people act by senses and follow the sense to seek benefits and avoid damage. Such theories slowly touch the essence of human life.
Then, Schopenhauer thought that humans are the representational world of the will, which deepens human thought to a deeper level of the will; people are controlled by will. Therefore, based on Schopenhauer’s view, Nietzsche’s will to power and Superman emerged. Nietzsche believed that humans were driven by the will to power, and Superman leaded humans forward. Thus, the traditional moral philosophy system collapsed before the last blow of Nietzsche. I personally consider that after Nietzsche, human moral philosophy is dead (if you want to know more, please refer to Chapter II of this book). The moral philosophy of the secular society can’t even establish basic morality? How can it produce more advanced concepts of freedom and equality? Therefore, the secular society can not produce universal value at all.
Comparison to these secular moral philosophies is Christian morality. As for Christian morality ( I summarize its characteristics in the following chapter, the third chapter of this book) , it is based on faith, and It believes that morality is the Divine Order of heaven and Eden. Only by pursuing virtue can people be saved and obtain eternal life. Moreover, Christian morality warns that violating morality will be punished in hell, making people feel awed and daren’t do anything wrong. At the same time, Christian morality is an absolute truth that can not be refuted and questioned. It requires people to obey and execute firmly. It does not allow any hesitation and vacillation, so that the execution of morality is automatic and timely, and social order can be effectively established. Since Christian morality is an absolute truth, it is sacred and inviolable. And it also is a responsibility and obligation for the believer and is inescapable for them. All these can not be achieved by secular moral philosophy. Therefore, Christian morality can easily become the foundation of society and has founded Western society all along. Countless other facts in five thousand years of human history have also proved that humans are driven by faith. All human behavior is for the ultimate purpose of immortality and eternity. This is also what I think; belief is the real driving force of the world. Only based on belief can humans establish universal values; only through faith can we obtain the concepts of equality, freedom, and human rights. We have discussed that these concepts actually come from Christian brotherly love, equality under God, and religious freedom. In the eyes of Christians, these are the keys to access to heaven. Because of such holiness, they will pursue Christian morality unremittingly and even risk their lives. How can the non-Christian world get these universal values without such pursuit? What can drive non-Christians to get them?
However, I don’t want to be misunderstood. I don’t mean that everyone should believe in Christianity, but clarify a fact. There are many religions now, and new religions may emerge. I just think that if every believer can absorb the merits of Christianity and integrate the concepts of brotherly love, freedom, and equality into their own religious belief, Then it will be a better world.
We can find that all leftist thinkers leading the trend live in Christian countries that are gradually secularized. There are still a large number of Christians in these countries. Thus, these concepts can be pulled out of the soil and generalized and abstracted to universe concepts. Their existence has not been affected for the time being. Most people believe that whether these concepts come from God or not, they are all taken for granted. These concepts are inseparable from the soil of Christianity; they are the fruits of brotherly love. Therefore, they can survive temporarily in the gradually secularized Christian countries, which ought to be. However, when we transplant them into non-Christian society, can the fruits of the Christian soils survive? The answer is negative.
Welcome to donate and support. Your support is the biggest driving force for the author’s writing. I believe it is also support for God and God’s cause. Friends with WeChat and Alipay can click on the QR code below to donate.
Friends without them can use the following PayPal account to donate, https:/ /www.paypal.me/readjoyinc.
Share the post "Any kindness has specific soil, so there is no universal value of arbitrary existence."